China’s rapid industrial growth in the past three decades — averaging nearly 12% per year — has fueled a surging demand for energy. Indeed, in 2009, China edged out the United States to become the world’s largest energy consumer and in the late 1990s China shifted from being a net energy exporter to a net importer. China’s demand for energy continues to grow and is expected to account for a quarter of global energy consumption by 2035. Consequently, the quest for energy supplies has taken on strategic importance. Evidence shows that China has led an intensive search for all available energy supplies, ranging from coal to hydroelectric power, both at home and abroad.